Monday, 12 March 2018

Ping command in networking

Ping is a computer network administration software utility used to test the reachability of a host on  network. (means you are reachable to that host or not by using ping command)

when you are pinging any host what actually happen.

it will send normally 4 packets to other host which you want to ping .

if your are using ipv4 then packet is as below.

IPv4 Datagram
 Bits 0–7Bits 8–15Bits 16–23Bits 24–31
(20 bytes)
Version/IHLType of serviceLength
Identificationflags and offset
Time To Live (TTL)ProtocolHeader Checksum
Source IP address
Destination IP address
ICMP Header
(8 bytes)
Type of messageCodeChecksum
Header Data
ICMP Payload
Payload Data
If you are using ipv6 then packet is as below.

IPv6 Datagram
 Bits 0–3Bits 4–7Bits 8–11Bits 12–15Bits 16–23Bits 24–31
(40 bytes)
VersionTraffic ClassFlow Label
Payload LengthNext HeaderHop Limit
Source Address
Destination Address
ICMP6 Header
(8 bytes)
Type of messageCodeChecksum
Header Data
ICMP6 Payload
Payload Data

Function: Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts

Protocol used : ICMP ( ICMP protocol should allowed in Firewall)

ICMP : UseInternet Control Message Protocol


Ping IPAdress or web address


$ ping -c 5
PING ( 56 data bytes
64 bytes from icmp_seq=0 ttl=56 time=11.632 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=56 time=11.726 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=56 time=10.683 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=56 time=9.674 ms
64 bytes from icmp_seq=4 ttl=56 time=11.127 ms

--- ping statistics ---
5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 9.674/10.968/11.726/0.748 ms                                               

The ping utility was written by Mike Muuss in December 1983 as a tool to troubleshoot problems in an IP network.

Ping is a very essential command to troubleshooting and diagnosis

Error indications 

In cases of no response from the target host, most implementations display either nothing or periodically print notifications about timing out. Possible ping results indicating a problem include the following:
H, !N or !P – host, network or protocol unreachable S – source route failed F – fragmentation needed U or !W – destination network/host unknown I – source host is isolated A – communication with destination network administratively prohibited Z – communication with destination host administratively prohibited Q – for this ToS the destination network is unreachable T – for this ToS the destination host is unreachable X – communication administratively prohibited V – host precedence violation C – precedence cutoff in effect

In case of error, the target host or an intermediate router sends back an ICMP error message, for example "host unreachable" or "TTL exceeded in transit". In addition, these messages include the first eight bytes of the original message (in this case header of the ICMP echo request, including the quench value), so the ping utility can match responses to originating queries.

Thursday, 19 October 2017

Adobe Creative Cloud

Creative Cloud

Creative Cloud gives you the entire collection of Adobe desktop and mobile apps, from 

essentials like Photoshop CC to next generation tools like Adobe XD CC. You also get 

built-in templates to jump-start your designs and step-by-step tutorials to sharpen your 

skills and get up to speed quickly. It’s everything you need to create, collaborate, and get 


From blank page to brilliant design.

The world-class design tools in Creative Cloud give you everything you need to make anything you can dream up. Design logos, posters, brochures, ads, and more. Combine images to make incredible artwork. And use our mobile apps to sketch, draw, and create layouts wherever you’re inspired.

Image editing and compositing

Vector graphics and illustration

Page design and layout for print and digital publishing

Find the perfect assets for your next creative project

Vector drawing anywhere

Thousands of fonts from the world's leading type foundries

Exceptional experiences on every screen.

Turn your brightest ideas into interactive experiences with our family of web and UX design tools. Design and prototype websites, mobile apps, interfaces, and more. Build modern responsive websites with or without coding. And choose from thousands of fonts to make your sites look just the way you want.

Adobe XD
Design and prototype user experiences for web and mobile
Adobe Muse
Design and publish websites without writing code
Design and develop modern, responsive websites
Thousands of fonts from the world's leading type foundries

Stunning visual stories in minutes.

Adobe Spark makes it easy to turn your ideas into beautiful graphics, web pages, and video stories. No design experience required. New premium features let you add your own logos, colors, and other brand elements to your projects, so everything you create is uniquely yours.

Video that's always a cut above.
From home movies and YouTube videos to Hollywood blockbusters, Creative Cloud has you covered. Edit footage on your phone or your desktop. Add graphics, effects, and pro-quality audio. Get up and running fast with hundreds of step-by-step tutorials. Your desktop and mobile apps work together seamlessly, so you can take your footage further on film, TV, and the web.

Premiere Pro
Video production and editing
After Effects
Cinematic visual effects 
Audio recording, mixing, and restoration
Character Animator
Animate your 2D characters in real time
Adobe Story
Collaborative screenwriting and pre-production
Adobe Premiere Clip
Video editing on the go

Wednesday, 30 August 2017

OST File,PST File,OST To PST conversion in Microsoft outlook

Microsoft outlook is an email client widely used all over the world by microsoft lovers

generally if you are a IT engineer or in the field of IT you may encounterd with the word "OST File"
and "PST File". You may fill requirement or request from your user about ost to pst conversion.

Let us here explain what is OST File in microsoft outlook ? what is pst file in microsoft outlook ?
why we need to convert ost to pst sometimes and how to convert ost file into pst in microsoft outlook.


OST File :

Offline or cached Outlook items (.ost)

Email accounts, such as Microsoft Exchange,, or IMAP keep your mail on a server. The Offline Outlook Data File (.ost) is a synchronized copy of the account saved on your computer, and is stored in one of the following default locations, based on the client version and the Outlook account type:

  • drive:\Users\<username>\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Outlook
  • drive:\Documents and Settings\<username>\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook

How to backup emails, calendars, contacts, tasks, and notes (.pst)

An Outlook Data File (.pst) contains your backed-up email messages, calendars, contacts, tasks, and notes, and can be stored in one of the following default locations:
  • drive:\Users\<username>\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Outlook
  • drive:\Users\<username>\Roaming\Local\Microsoft\Outlook
  • drive:\Users\<username>\Documents\Outlook Files
  • drive:\Users\<username>\My Documents\Outlook Files
  • drive:\Documents and Settings\<username>\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook
Refrence :

Monday, 19 June 2017

Install Printer Windows 7

Installing  windows printer driver automatically(Built in driver)

Set Windows Update to automatically download driver software
Open the Windows Device Installation Settings and confirm that your computer is set to automatically download driver software.

1.     Search Windows for change device installation, and then click the Change device installation settings Control Panel setting in the list of results.

Device Installation Settings window displays.

1.     Select the Yes option, and then click Save Changes.

Figure : Example of selecting the Yes option

Install Printer Windows 7

Step 2: Connect your printer to the computer

Connect your printer to the computer with a USB cable or through your local network so Windows can detect your printer during the print driver installation.